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Imams and emirs : state, religion and sects in Islam / Fuad I. Khuri

By: Khūrī, Fuʿad IMaterial type: TextTextLanguage: English Publisher: London Saqi 1990Description: 270 s. illISBN: 0863563481; 0-86356-037-7Uniform titles: Imāmat al-shahīd wa-imāmat al-bāṭal Subject(s): Religion | Religionshistoria | Främre Asien | Främreasiatiska religioner | Muslimer | IslamOther classification: Cmd | Cmdd
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Enhanced descriptions from Syndetics:

Imams and Emirs is a comparative study of Islamic sects in the contemporary Arab world. It spotlights the Sunnis, Shi'as, Alawis, Druze, Ibadis, Zaidis and Yazidis. The Christian Maronites are added to this group because they share the same distinguishing features, which include geographical isolation, territorial exclusiveness, intensity of rituals and duality of religious organization. The book's unique contribution is to examine not only issues of dogma, but also the ecological, historical and structural variables that differentiate a religion from a sect and a sect from a religious community or minority. This is the first time Islamic religious communities have been placed on a single comparative scale. The book focuses on religious ideology and ulama organization. Ideology refers to the genesis and formation of the religious community; organization, to the recruitment, training and roles of the ulama (imams) in society. Whereas Sunni ideology and organization are adapted to the sovereignty of centralized authority (state, government), those of other sects are adapted to the sovereignty of the religious community. Thus Sunni ideology tends to be conformist, and that of the other sects, rebellious. Many Islamic sects began as rebellious groups and subsequently developed into stable, routine systems. Conflict and contradiction among Muslims centre around two poles: the ulama, who derive their authority from religious dogma, and the emirs and sultans who base their authority on power and coercion. In Sunni Islam, for instance, the ulama's role is subsidiary to that of the power elites, but among the Shi'a it is theulama themselves who form the power elites. After reviewing the ideological and organizational characteristics of individual sects, Khuri addresses the issue of religious change under the heading 'Brethren or Citizens'. Here, he deals with the interplay between religions, state and nationalism and discusses the contradictions between modern state structures and the Islamic umma. Already, he argues, some religious concepts are taking on nationalistic meanings.

S.247-258: Bibliography

Table of contents provided by Syndetics

  • List of Figures, Tables and Maps
  • A Note on Arabic Words
  • Acknowledgements
  • Chapter 1 Introduction Sources and Chapters
  • Part 1 Religion and Sect In Islam
  • Chapter 2 Religion and Sea in Islam Religion as Din and Sect as Ta'ifa
  • The Supremacy of the Shari'a
  • The Sovereignty of Religion
  • Chapter 3 The Incorporative Character of Religion and the Segregative Character of Sects
  • The Selection of the Caliph or Imam Variations in Legal Interpretation Cultural Practices
  • Chapter 4 The Centrality of Religion State and Asabiya: the Sunni and the Sects
  • Sects and Modern States
  • The Feudal Tradition
  • Chapter 5 The Peripherality of Sects
  • The Territorial Concentration of Sects
  • The Comprehensive System of Production
  • Chapter 6 Sects and Religious Minorities
  • The Spread of Religious Minorities
  • The Adaptation of Minorities to the Sunni Ideology of Government
  • The Correspondence between Religious and Social Stratification
  • The Specialized Production System among Religious Minorities
  • Part 2 The Ideology of Sects
  • Chapter 7 The Formation of the Religious Community
  • The Origin and Formation of the Religious Community: the Sunni View
  • The Origin and Formation of the Religious Community: the View of Sects
  • The Controversy of Origin i0
  • Chapter 8 The Imam: Martyr or Hero?
  • The Hero Imamate: the Ibadis and the Zaidis
  • The Martyr Imamate: the Shi'a
  • Chapter 9 The Society of Divine Manifestation: the Druzes and the Alawis
  • The Synthetic View of Religion
  • The Stratified View of Religion; the Alawis
  • The Stratified View of Religion: the Druzes
  • Chapter 10 The Survival Society: the Yazidis
  • The Society of Angels: the Yazidis
  • Chapter 11 Lebanon, the Unique Identity: the Maronites
  • Part 3 - The Organization of Sects
  • Chapter 12 The Organization of Religion: the Sunni Ulama
  • The Ulama of Religion in Islam
  • The Sunni Ulama
  • Chapter 13 The Imam and the Pharaoh: the Shi'a Ulama Social Profile of al-Ghumri
  • Chapter 14 Purity versus Power: the Ibadis, the Zaidis and the Yazidis
  • Duality in Contradiction: the Zaidis and the Ibadis Parallel
  • Duality: the Yazidis
  • Chapter 15 God and Caesar: the Alawis and the Druzes
  • The Alawi Shaikhs of Religion
  • The Druze Ajawid
  • Chapter 16 God and Caesar: the Maronites and the Orthodox
  • Chapter 17 Epilogue: Brethren or Citizens?
  • The Interplay between State, Religion and Nationalism
  • Some Future Trends
  • Notes
  • Glossary
  • Bibliography
  • Index of Concepts
  • Index of Names