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Understanding human anatomy & physiology / Sylvia S. Mader, Patrick L. Galliart

Contributor(s): Mader, Sylvia S.
Material type: TextTextPublisher: Boston McGraw-Hill cop 1997Description: 444 s. ill.ISBN: 0697251705.Subject(s): Fysiologi | Klinisk fysiologi | Medicinsk fysiologi | Medicin | AnatomiOther classification: Vca | Vb | Vb
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Enhanced descriptions from Syndetics:

This text presents a basic introduction to human anatomy and physiology. It covers all the basic information that is needed to have a general understanding of the structure and function of the human body. The writing style and depth of presentation are designed to be appropriate for students commencing a career in the field of allied health.

Table of contents provided by Syndetics

  • Boxed Readings (p. x)
  • Preface (p. xii)
  • Part I Human Organization (p. 1)
  • 1 Organization of the Body (p. 1)
  • Anatomy and Physiology (p. 2)
  • Organization of Body Parts (p. 2)
  • Anatomical Terms (p. 3)
  • Relative Positions of Body Parts (p. 3)
  • Planes and Sections of the Body (p. 4)
  • Regions of the Body (p. 5)
  • Cavities of the Body (p. 6)
  • Organ Systems (p. 9)
  • Integumentary System (p. 9)
  • Support and Movement (p. 9)
  • Integration and Coordination (p. 9)
  • Maintenance of the Body (p. 9)
  • Reproduction and Development (p. 12)
  • Homeostasis (p. 12)
  • Medical Focus: Spare Parts (p. 11)
  • 2 Chemistry of Life (p. 16)
  • Elements and Atoms (p. 17)
  • Isotopes: Atomic Weights Vary (p. 18)
  • Molecules and Compounds (p. 18)
  • Some Important Inorganic Molecules (p. 20)
  • Water (p. 20)
  • Electrolytes (p. 21)
  • Acids and Bases (p. 21)
  • Some Important Organic Molecules (p. 23)
  • Carbohydrates (p. 23)
  • Lipids (p. 24)
  • Proteins (p. 25)
  • Nucleic Acids (p. 29)
  • ATP (p. 29)
  • Medical Focus: Imaging the Body (p. 19)
  • Medical Focus: Nutrition Labels (p. 26)
  • 3 Cell Structure and Function (p. 33)
  • The Plasma Membrane (p. 34)
  • The Nucleus (p. 35)
  • The Cytoplasm (p. 36)
  • Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis (p. 36)
  • Endomembrane System (p. 37)
  • Mitochondria (p. 38)
  • Centrioles and Related Organelles (p. 39)
  • Plasma Membrane Transport (p. 39)
  • Passive Transport (p. 39)
  • Active Transport (p. 41)
  • Endocytosis and Exocytosis (p. 42)
  • Cell Division (p. 42)
  • Mitosis (p. 42)
  • Meiosis (p. 44)
  • Medical Focus: Hemodialysis (p. 40)
  • MedAlert: Cancer (p. 44)
  • 4 Body Tissues and Membranes (p. 48)
  • Body Tissues (p. 49)
  • Epithelial Tissue (p. 49)
  • Connective Tissue (p. 51)
  • Muscular Tissue (p. 55)
  • Nervous Tissue (p. 58)
  • Body Membranes (p. 59)
  • Mucous Membranes (p. 59)
  • Serous Membranes (p. 59)
  • Synovial Membranes (p. 60)
  • Meninges (p. 60)
  • Cutaneous Membrane (p. 60)
  • Medical Focus: Classification of Cancers (p. 57)
  • 5 The Integumentary System (p. 62)
  • Structure of the Skin (p. 63)
  • Epidermis (p. 63)
  • Dermis (p. 64)
  • Subcutaneous Layer (p. 64)
  • Accessory Structures of the Skin (p. 65)
  • Hair and Nails (p. 65)
  • Glands (p. 66)
  • Functions of the Skin (p. 67)
  • Protection (p. 67)
  • Synthesis of Vitamin D (p. 67)
  • Sensory Reception and Communication (p. 67)
  • Regulation of Body Temperature (p. 68)
  • Disorders of the Skin (p. 68)
  • Skin Cancer (p. 68)
  • Burns (p. 71)
  • Wound Healing (p. 72)
  • Effects of Aging (p. 73)
  • Visual Focus: Temperature Control (p. 69)
  • Medical Focus: Link between UV Radiation and Skin Cancer (p. 70)
  • Medical Focus: Epidermis from the Laboratory (p. 71)
  • Working Together: Integumentary System (p. 74)
  • Part II Support and Movement (p. 77)
  • 6 The Skeletal System (p. 77)
  • Skeleton: Overview (p. 78)
  • Functions (p. 78)
  • Anatomy of a Long Bone (p. 78)
  • Growth and Development (p. 80)
  • Fractures (p. 81)
  • Axial Skeleton (p. 81)
  • Skull (p. 81)
  • Hyoid Bone (p. 84)
  • Vertebral Column (Spine) (p. 87)
  • Thoracic Cage (p. 89)
  • Appendicular Skeleton (p. 90)
  • Pectoral Girdle (p. 90)
  • Upper Limb (Arm) (p. 91)
  • Pelvic Girdle (p. 94)
  • Lower Limb (Leg) (p. 97)
  • Joints (Articulations) (p. 99)
  • Classification (p. 99)
  • Movements Permitted by Synovial Joints (p. 103)
  • Effects of Aging (p. 104)
  • Medical Focus: Knee Injuries (p. 100)
  • MedAlert: Arthritic Joints (p. 102)
  • Working Together: Skeletal System (p. 105)
  • 7 The Muscular System (p. 109)
  • Types and Functions of Muscles (p. 110)
  • Types of Muscles (p. 110)
  • Functions of Muscles (p. 110)
  • Skeletal Muscle Structure and Contraction (p. 110)
  • Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle (p. 111)
  • Physiology of Muscle Contraction (p. 113)
  • Chemistry of Muscle Contraction (p. 113)
  • Aspects of Muscle Contraction (p. 114)
  • Skeletal Muscles of the Body (p. 117)
  • Naming Muscles (p. 117)
  • Muscles of the Head (p. 120)
  • Muscles of the Neck and Trunk (p. 121)
  • Muscles of the Shoulder and Upper Limb (Arm) (p. 123)
  • Muscles of the Thigh and Lower Limb (Leg) (p. 126)
  • Effects of Aging (p. 129)
  • Visual Focus: Contraction of a Muscle (p. 112)
  • Medical Focus: Muscular Dystrophy (p. 115)
  • MedAlert: Benefits of Exercise (p. 116)
  • Working Together: Muscular System (p. 131)
  • Part III Integration and Coordination (p. 135)
  • 8 The Nervous System (p. 135)
  • Nervous System (p. 136)
  • Divisions of the Nervous System (p. 136)
  • Functions of the Nervous System (p. 137)
  • Cells of Nervous Tissue (p. 137)
  • Nerve Impulses (p. 140)
  • The Synapse (p. 140)
  • Nerves (p. 142)
  • Reflexes and the Reflex Arc (p. 142)
  • Central Nervous System (p. 144)
  • Brain (p. 144)
  • Spinal Cord (p. 150)
  • Meninges and Cerebrospinal Fluid (p. 150)
  • Peripheral Nervous System (p. 152)
  • Somatic Nervous System (p. 152)
  • Autonomic Nervous System (p. 155)
  • Effects of Aging (p. 158)
  • Medical Focus: The Left and Right Brain (p. 146)
  • Medical Focus: EEG (p. 149)
  • Medical Focus: Spinal Cord Injuries (p. 150)
  • Working Together: Nervous System (p. 159)
  • MedAlert: Alzheimer Disease (p. 160)
  • 9 The Sensory System (p. 165)
  • General Receptors (p. 166)
  • Skin (p. 166)
  • Visceral Organs (p. 167)
  • Muscles and Joints (p. 167)
  • Chemoreceptors (p. 168)
  • Photoreceptors (p. 169)
  • Accessory Organs of the Eye (p. 170)
  • Structure of the Eye (p. 172)
  • Mechanoreceptors (p. 179)
  • External Ear (p. 180)
  • Middle Ear (p. 180)
  • Inner Ear (p. 180)
  • Hearing (p. 180)
  • Balance (Equilibrium) (p. 183)
  • Effects of Aging (p. 183)
  • Medical Focus: Myasthenia Gravis (p. 171)
  • MedAlert: Age-Related Macular Degeneration (p. 174)
  • Medical Focus: Corrective Lenses (p. 178)
  • Medical Focus: Hearing Damage and Deafness (p. 182)
  • 10 The Endocrine System (p. 186)
  • Endocrine System (p. 187)
  • Hormone Action (p. 187)
  • Endocrine Glands (p. 187)
  • Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland (p. 190)
  • Posterior Pituitary (p. 190)
  • Anterior Pituitary (p. 191)
  • Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands (p. 193)
  • Thyroid Gland (p. 193)
  • Parathyroid Glands (p. 194)
  • Adrenal Glands (p. 194)
  • Adrenal Medulla (p. 195)
  • Adrenal Cortex (p. 195)
  • Pancreas (p. 197)
  • Diabetes Mellitus (p. 197)
  • Testes and Ovaries (p. 199)
  • Testosterone (p. 199)
  • Estrogen and Progesterone (p. 199)
  • Other Endocrine Glands and Hormones (p. 199)
  • Hormones Not Associated with Glands (p. 202)
  • Effects of Aging (p. 202)
  • Visual Focus: Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary (p. 191)
  • Medical Focus: Glucocorticoid Therapy (p. 195)
  • MedAlert: Side Effects of Anabolic Steroids (p. 200)
  • Working Together: Endocrine System (p. 203)
  • Part IV Maintenance of the Body (p. 207)
  • 11 Blood (p. 207)
  • Composition of Blood (p. 208)
  • Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) (p. 208)
  • White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) (p. 208)
  • Types of White Blood Cells (p. 209)
  • Platelets (Thrombocytes) (p. 212)
  • Hematopoiesis (p. 212)
  • Plasma (p. 212)
  • Functions of Blood (p. 214)
  • Transport (p. 214)
  • Blood Clotting (p. 215)
  • Blood Groups and Typing (p. 217)
  • ABO System (p. 217)
  • Rh System (p. 217)
  • Blood Typing (p. 218)
  • Effects of Aging (p. 219)
  • Medical Focus: Abnormal Red and White Blood Cell Counts (p. 210)
  • Medical Focus: Who Should Not Give Blood (p. 218)
  • 12 The Circulatory System (p. 222)
  • Anatomy of the Heart (p. 223)
  • Pericardial Membranes (p. 223)
  • Chambers of the Heart (p. 223)
  • Path of Blood in the Heart (p. 227)
  • Double Pump (p. 227)
  • Heartbeat (p. 227)
  • Cardiac Disorders (p. 232)
  • Vascular System (p. 234)
  • Blood Vessels (p. 234)
  • Path of Circulation (p. 236)
  • Features of the Circulatory System (p. 244)
  • Pulse (p. 244)
  • Blood Pressure (p. 244)
  • Effects of Aging (p. 246)
  • Medical Focus: Congestive Heart Failure (p. 227)
  • Medical Focus: The Electrocardiogram (p. 230)
  • MedAlert: Preventing Heart Attacks (p. 232)
  • Working Together: Circulatory System (p. 247)
  • 13 The Lymphatic System and Immunity (p. 251)
  • Lymphatic System (p. 252)
  • Lymphatic Vessels (p. 252)
  • Lymphoid Organs (p. 253)
  • Immunity (p. 256)
  • Nonspecific Defenses (p. 256)
  • Specific Defenses (p. 258)
  • Immunotherapy (p. 262)
  • Active Immunity (p. 262)
  • Passive Immunity (p. 262)
  • Lymphokines (p. 264)
  • Immunological Side Effects and Illnesses (p. 266)
  • Allergies (p. 266)
  • Tissue Rejection (p. 266)
  • Autoimmune Diseases (p. 267)
  • Immune Deficiency (p. 267)
  • Effects of Aging (p. 267)
  • Medical Focus: Lymph Nodes and Illnesses (p. 254)
  • Medical Focus: Bone Marrow Biopsy and Transplant (p. 255)
  • Visual Focus: The Inflammatory Reaction (p. 257)
  • Medical Focus: Immunization: The Great Protector (p. 263)
  • MedAlert: AIDS Epidemic (p. 264)
  • Working Together: Lymphatic System (p. 268)
  • 14 The Respiratory System (p. 271)
  • Respiratory Organs (p. 272)
  • Nose (p. 273)
  • Pharynx (p. 273)
  • Larynx (p. 274)
  • Trachea (p. 275)
  • Bronchi and Bronchioles (p. 275)
  • Lungs (p. 276)
  • Mechanisms of Breathing (p. 277)
  • Inspiration (p. 277)
  • Expiration (p. 279)
  • Lung Capacities (p. 280)
  • Respiration Mechanisms and Transport of Gases (p. 281)
  • Partial Pressures of Gases (p. 281)
  • Transport of Gases (p. 282)
  • Respiratory Infections and Lung Disorders (p. 284)
  • Respiratory Infections (p. 284)
  • Lung Disorders (p. 285)
  • Effects of Aging (p. 287)
  • Medical Focus: Modified Breathing Rates (p. 277)
  • Visual Focus: Inspiration Versus Expiration (p. 279)
  • Medical Focus: Heimlich Maneuver (p. 281)
  • MedAlert: The Most Often Asked Questions about Smoking, Tobacco, and Health, and ... the Answers (p. 288)
  • Working Together: Respiratory System (p. 290)
  • 15 The Digestive System (p. 294)
  • Digestive System (p. 295)
  • Mouth (p. 296)
  • Pharynx (p. 298)
  • Esophagus (p. 299)
  • Stomach (p. 299)
  • Small Intestine (p. 301)
  • Large Intestine (p. 303)
  • Accessory Organs (p. 306)
  • Pancreas (p. 306)
  • Liver (p. 306)
  • Gallbladder (p. 308)
  • Chemical Digestion (p. 309)
  • Nutrition (p. 309)
  • Vitamins (p. 310)
  • Minerals (p. 311)
  • Effects of Aging (p. 314)
  • Medical Focus: Human Teeth (p. 297)
  • MedAlert: Constipation (p. 304)
  • Medical Focus: Viral Hepatitis (p. 308)
  • Medical Focus: Antioxidants (p. 311)
  • Working Together: Digestive System (p. 315)
  • 16 The Urinary System (p. 319)
  • Urinary System (p. 320)
  • Functions of the Urinary System (p. 320)
  • Urinary Organs (p. 320)
  • Urination (p. 322)
  • Urine Formation (p. 323)
  • Steps in Urine Formation (p. 323)
  • Concentrated Urine (p. 325)
  • Special Features of the Nephron (p. 327)
  • Regulatory Functions of the Kidney (p. 327)
  • Fluid and Electrolyte Balance (p. 327)
  • Acid-Base Balance (p. 329)
  • Effects of Aging (p. 331)
  • Visual Focus: Steps in Urine Formation (p. 324)
  • Medical Focus: Illnesses Detected by Urinalysis (p. 325)
  • MedAlert: Prostate Enlargement (p. 330)
  • Working Together: Urinary System (p. 332)
  • Part V Reproduction and Development (p. 335)
  • 17 The Reproductive System (p. 335)
  • Male Reproductive System (p. 336)
  • Testes (p. 336)
  • Genital Tract (p. 336)
  • External Genitals (p. 339)
  • Orgasm in Males (p. 339)
  • Regulation of Male Hormone Levels (p. 340)
  • Female Reproductive System (p. 341)
  • Ovaries (p. 341)
  • Genital Tract (p. 343)
  • External Genitals (p. 345)
  • Orgasm in Females (p. 345)
  • Regulation of Female Hormone Levels (p. 345)
  • Control of Reproduction and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (p. 349)
  • Infertility (p. 349)
  • Birth Control (p. 351)
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases (p. 353)
  • Effects of Aging (p. 355)
  • Visual Focus: Anatomy of Ovary and Follicle (p. 342)
  • Medical Focus: Ovarian Cancer (p. 344)
  • Visual Focus: Regulation of Estrogen and Progesterone Secretion by Negative Feedback (p. 346)
  • MedAlert: Endometriosis (p. 350)
  • Medical Focus: Alternative Methods of Reproduction (p. 351)
  • Working Together: Reproductive System (p. 356)
  • 18 Human Development and Birth (p. 360)
  • Fertilization (p. 361)
  • Development (p. 364)
  • Extraembryonic Membranes (p. 364)
  • Placenta (p. 364)
  • Pre-Embryonic and Embryonic Development (p. 365)
  • Fetal Development (p. 368)
  • Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother (p. 370)
  • Birth (p. 371)
  • Stages of Birth (p. 371)
  • Female Breast and Lactation (p. 373)
  • MedAlert: Detecting Birth Defects (p. 362)
  • Medical Focus: Teratogens (p. 367)
  • Medical Focus: Premature Babies (p. 372)
  • 19 Human Genetics (p. 377)
  • Inheritance of Autosomes (p. 379)
  • Down Syndrome (p. 379)
  • Other Autosomal Abnormalities (p. 381)
  • Inheritance of Sex Chromosomes (p. 381)
  • Gene Inheritance (p. 383)
  • Genetic Disorders (p. 384)
  • Biochemical Genetics (p. 385)
  • Biotechnology (p. 387)
  • Gene Therapy (p. 388)
  • Visual Focus: Ex Vivo Gene Therapy in Humans (p. 388)
  • Appendix A Reference Figures: The Human Organism (p. 391)
  • Appendix B Understanding Medical Terminology (p. 398)
  • Appendix C Answers to Objective Questions (p. 406)
  • Appendix D Further Readings (p. 411)
  • Glossary (p. 413)
  • Credits (p. 430)
  • Index (p. 433)